Check the new issue of Time and Mind 2022 (15:2), where I discuss phallic iconography in Northern Plains Indian rock art.
Abstract: Depictions of male primary sexual characteristics are extremely varied and relatively frequent in Plains Indian rock art. These representations have been usually associated with shamanic practice, mythical themes, and fertility. However, existing explanations ought to be evaluated against cultural models and various strands of evidence derived from ethnographic parallels and semiotics so as to build a more nuanced picture of this common symbol. New interpretations advanced here may help us to gain an informed understanding of the complexities of these representations, and the workings of symbols and icons in Northern Plains Indian rock art.